Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann, 1824) is an insect of the order Diptera belonging to the Tephritidae family.It is native to the West Coast of Africa, where it lives together with other similar species. It has spread from there to other mild, subtropical and tropical zones in both hemispheres.It is considered a cosmopolitan species and can be found in many places because it travels with produce transported by man.In spite of its origin, it is also called Mediterranean fruit fly because of its devastating economic effect on Mediterranean countries. It affects many crops, especially citrus trees, as well as pip and stone fruit trees.

In Spain, it spreads throughout the Southern and Mediterranean regions, reaching optimal conditions in the regions situated more inland.

It is a highly polyphagous insect that attacks all types of fruit. The larvae live inside the fruit and prefer those that have the most sweet and fleshy pulp such as the peach, but they also damage figs, apricots, oranges, mandarins, persimmons, grapes, pears, pomegranates, mangos, custard apples, papayas, loquats, plums, quinces, etc.

It can produce several generations every year, depending on the climate of the area. During the cold season, they live on the ground in pupal stage. In areas with a mild climate, it can produce up to 7 or 8 generations.


MORPHOLOGY

Adult: Vibrant colours such as yellow, white and black and its size is something smaller than that of a housefly (4-5 mm long). Its head has large iridescent green eyes. Its thorax is grey with black spots and long hairs. Its abdomen is tawny with yellow and grey dorsal bands. Its legs are yellowish and its wings are iridescent, with several greyish, yellow and black spots.

The female has a conical abdomen ending in a strong ovipositor in which many black and yellow sensorial hairs are inserted. The male, being somewhat smaller, has two long silks on the forehead that culminate in a rhomboidal palate.

Egg: Egg-shaped. Recently laid, it is white, long and slightly curved but then turns yellowish. Its average size is 1 x 0.2 mm. Its surface which is smooth at a glance, shows a micro-reticulum of hexagonal mesh.

Larva: It is small, whitish and apodous with the frontal part situated at the extreme end of the body while the posterior part is wider and shorter. After moulting twice, it reaches its complete growth by looking white or yellow with cream, orange or reddish spots due to the presence of food inside it. Its size is 9 x 2 mm.

Pupa: By completing the last moult, the exuvia changes into a protective cover in the shape of a small chestnut-coloured barrel. On the inside, it develops a phase of transformations of its body that will conclude with the attainment of the adult phase. When the insect emerges (between 6 to 15 days) it splits the puparium open on one of the sides.

Source: Instituto Nacional de Investigación y Tecnología Agraria y Alimentaria (INIA)


BIOLOGY

According to Gómez-Clemente, it can have the following cycle in the Mediterranean regions:

In winter, the first generation of female adults appears and attacks oranges and clementines, looking for the sunniest branches. The mature fruits are more vulnerable. All citrus fruits are exposed to its attacks, but the thickness and the texture of the peel, as well as the density of the essential oils glands, play an important role in their immunity, as is the case with the lemon.

They fly over the fruits looking for the right place. Colour and scent play an important role when selecting a place to lay their eggs (they prefer yellow and orange).

They lay their eggs in groups of 5 to 10. The total number of eggs for each female can range from 300 to 400. Entering inside the fruit, the larvae feed on the pulp. The rotten fruits fall to the ground and the larvae emerges from the inside of the fruit by pupating underground at a depth of 5-10 cm. In spring, a second generation appears and affects the apricots. At the beginning of summer, there is a third generation that affects the peaches.

In August and September, a fourth and fifth generation affects peaches, pears, figs, persimmons and grapes. The Ceratitis Capitata also begins to bite oranges and mandarins that are still green.

Later on, there is a sixth generation that attacks late fruits, such as oranges and mandarins. If the temperature is mild, there could be other generations.

Activity is reduced in winter but when the temperature rises above 14 oC, the flies become active again.

Source: Universidad Politécnica de Valencia.


DAMAGES

The female fly lays (up to 10 eggs) by introducing her ovipositor into the fruits when they begin to ripen. The wound is an entrance for the microorganisms that begin the rotting process of the fruit. Moreover, the larvae excavate galleries to the inside of the fruit, increasing the decomposition and causing the fruit to the fall to the ground.

When the larvae feed on the pulp, they favour the processes of oxidation and the premature ripening of the fruit. This causes the fruit to rot, making it unsaleable at the market.

When the fruits fall to the ground, this causes great inconvenience because the fly begins its cycle in the fruit again, multiplying the population of the pest very quickly.

Another important focal point for the fruit fly is the mature and sweet fruits that remain unpicked in the trees after the fruit picking season because of economic or commercial reasons.

CODE: VA001

TRADE NAME: ECONEX CERATITIS CAPITATA 90 DAYS

Long-lasting sexual attractant for the male of the Mediterranean fruit fly Ceratitis capitata. It lasts 90 days in field conditions.

3,86 € (excl. VAT)

The diffuser contains 2 g of Trimedlure and consists of a cylinder of compact polyester fibres impregnated with the attractant. It lasts 90 days in field conditions.

It is individually packaged in an aluminium sachet with label specifications.

Once taken out of the packaging, the diffuser needs no activation, just placed correctly in the trap.


DETECTION AND MONITORING

Place from 1 to 2 traps per hectare, on the south side of the trees and at a height of 1.5 to 2 metres, for the detection and monitoring of the fruit fly populations.

The installation of the traps should be approximately between 1 and 3 months before harvesting the crops.


MASS TRAPPING

Males of this species are captured in order to reduce mating, meaning that the unfertilised females will lay unviable eggs. In this way, the pest population is reduced.

For this purpose, the amount of traps per surface area must be increased, according to the location and uniformity of the plots. A trap controls a surface area between 500 and 1.000 m2. This means a density of 10 to 20 traps per hectare placed on the south side of the trees at a height of 1.5 to 2 metres.

On the borders of the plots, it will be necessary to place a barrier of traps separated 10 to 15 metres apart from each other.


PERIOD OF USE

To obtain good control of the Mediterranean fruit fly it is advisable to combine two methods: detection and monitoring; and mass trapping.

In spring, 1 to 2 traps per hectare can be placed for the detection of the pest and observation of its population levels.

Through tolerance thresholds established in each area, the moment to adopt control measures is later defined, in this case mass trapping. The tolerance threshold for Ceratitis capitata is very low and varies according to the area and type of traps used. In general, captures per trap and per day are between 0.5 and 3.


NECESSARY MATERIAL

We can use the following traps: INVAGINATED EOSTRAP®INVAGINATED EOSTRAP® ORANGE LIDECONEX MOSQUEROECONEX BOTTLE TRAPECONEX WHITE TRIANGULAR without sheetsECONEX YELLOW TRIANGULAR without sheetsECONEX DISPOSABLE TRIANGULARECONEX DISPOSABLE TRIANGULAR MINIECONEX JACKSON TRAP or ECONEX YELLOW CHROMATIC 40 X 25 CM.

2,45 € (excl. VAT)

2,45 € (excl. VAT)

5,99 € (excl. VAT)

4,20 € (excl. VAT)

4,73 € (excl. VAT)

1,84 € (excl. VAT)

0,92 € (excl. VAT)

2,19 € (excl. VAT)

0,87 € (sin IVA)

 

1,86 € (excl. VAT)

The INVAGINATED EOSTRAP®and ECONEX MOSQUERO traps are more appropriate than the ECONEX TRIANGULAR and ECONEX JACKSON traps for mass trapping. In the INVAGINATED EOSTRAP® and in ECONEX MOSQUERO traps it is recommendable to use a SNAILNEX® or place a substance capable of killing or retaining the captured insects inside the traps, for example olive oil. These traps stand out because of their large capacity to capture insects and for their suitability to capture insects intact, which allows for a better morphological study of them.

In the ECONEX MOSQUERO, a small cage is placed as an accessory for placing the diffuser. In the INVAGINATED EOSTRAP® it is not necessary, as the diffuser is placed in the upper retractable clip under the cover of the trap. Both traps can be combined with the food attractant, whose use is permitted in Organic Farming.

The ECONEX WHITE TRIANGULAR without sheets and ECONEX YELLOW TRIANGULAR without sheets traps are activated by placing an ECONEX SHEET FOR TRIANGULAR 1 UNIT (Code: TA248) on the base. The sheet is impregnated with a pressure-sensitive adhesive, without solvents, in which the insects are trapped.

The ECONEX JACKSON TRAP includes an adhesive sheet impregnated with a pressure-sensitive adhesive, without solvents, in which the insects are trapped.

The ECONEX YELLOW TRIANGULAR without sheets trap is specifically designed to increase the effect of the attractant by its chromatic attraction. The colours used in the design of the trap with its chromatic attraction (visual) reinforce the use of the attractant, creating a highly attractive environment for the Ceratitis capitata.

The ECONEX YELLOW CHROMATIC 40 X 25 CM trap is an adhesive trap. It is a yellow polythene sheet, resistant to sunlight, of 1000 cm2 (40 x 25 cm) and with a 2×2 cm black grid on both sides. The sheet is covered on both sides with a pressure-sensitive adhesive, without solvents, which is protected by translucent, silicone paper. There is a 1 cm margin on the longer sides of the sheet that does not contain the adhesive to facilitate its handling. It has a hole in each corner to make its installation easier.

The ECONEX BOTTLE TRAP is a bottle-shaped disposable trap with a capacity of 1 litre and made of PET. It has 4 diagonal holes with yellow polypropylene inserts that are a truncated cone shape. These inserts make it easier for the target insects to enter the trap, both by chromotropic attraction as well as its funnel shape, also preventing their exit. It is a versatile and economical trap, optimised for its use in attraction and capture, by filling it with the appropriate attractant (not included) for the fruit fly (Ceratitis capitata).

The traps ECONEX WHITE TRIANGULAR without sheetsECONEX YELLOW TRIANGULAR without sheetsECONEX DISPOSABLE TRIANGULARECONEX DISPOSABLE TRIANGULAR MINIECONEX JACKSON TRAP or ECONEX YELLOW CHROMATIC 40 X 25 CM, stand out above all the rest because of their simplicity of use and still working until the pheromone runs out or the adhesive sheet becomes saturated. They are less recommended in areas with lots of dust in the air.


FACTORS THAT INFLUENCE THE NUMBER OF TRAPS NEEDED

The pest population, the bordering crops, the level of control required, etc….

An important factor is the size of the crops. In small and irregular crops, a greater number of traps are required than in larger and more uniform plots.

Another important factor is the distance between plots that have Ceratitis capitata. In these cases, the borders of the plots must be reinforced, so it could be necessary to place up to 20 traps per hectare or even more for mass trapping.


STORING THE DIFFUSERS

The diffusers must be stored in their original packaging and in the refrigerator at 4 oC; or in the freezer at -18 oC, in which case they will last for 2 and 4 years respectively.


PACKAGING

Corrugated cardboard box of 1.500 units (150 packs of 10 units)
Box size: 0.60×0.40×0.35 m (length x width x height)
Box weight: 12 kg.
No. of boxes per pallet: 20.
Pallet size: 1.20×0.80×1.90 m (length x width x height)
Pallet weight: 250 kg.

32,88 € (excl. VAT)

33,72 € (excl. VAT)

39,73 € (excl. VAT)


35,15 € (excl. VAT)


2,98 € (excl. VAT)


RECOMMENDED USE

Dissolve 4 or 5 tablets in 250 ml of water and pour into an EOSTRAP®INVAGINATED EOSTRAP®or ECONEX MOSQUERO.

Hang the trap from a branch at a height of 1.5 to 2 m, on the sunny side of the tree.

To examine the captures, you have to filter the contents of the trap into a strainer and keep the liquid.

It lasts approximately 100 days in field conditions, depending on temperature, relative humidity, degree of sun exposure and type of trap used.

2,72 € (excl. VAT)

2,45 € (excl. VAT)

5,99 € (excl. VAT)


ACTIVATION

Activate by dissolving 4 or 5 tablets in 250 ml of water.


DETECTION AND MONITORING

Place 1 or 2 traps per hectare. The traps must be activated at least 2 weeks before the start of the target insect’s flight period.


MASS TRAPPING

Increase the number of traps per hectare. From 70 to 120 traps/ha.


PRODUCT STORAGE

The product must be stored in its original packaging in a cool and dry place. In these conditions, it will last for 2 years from the production date.

CERATINEX® ATTRACTANT KIT

Bottle-shaped disposable trap in the form of a closed bottle. It has 4 diagonal holes with yellow polypropylene inserts that are a truncated cone shape. These inserts make it easier for the target insects to enter the trap, both by chromotropic attraction as well as its funnel shape, also preventing its exit. The trap contains 20g of powdered food attractant to dissolve in 500 ml of water. The trap includes a wire hanger to hang from a branch.

It lasts approximately 100 days in field conditions, provided that the levels of water remain stable. This will depend on the temperature, relative humidity, wind and sun exposure.

INSTRUCTIONS: Take the bottle cap off, add 500 ml of water (up to the indicated level on the inside sticker), close the bottle cap again, remove the upper label to open the holes and hang the bottle from a branch on the sunny side of the tree. Refill the bottle if more than 1/3 of water evaporates.

PRODUCT STORAGE: The product must be stored in its original packaging in a cool and dry place. In these conditions, it will last for 2 years from the production date.


PACKAGING

CERATINEX® ATTRACTANT 10 KG

Corrugated cardboard 20 kg box (2 x 10 kg)
Box size: 0.60×0.40×0.35 m (length x width x height)
Box weight: 21.5 kg.
No. of boxes per pallet: 20.
Pallet size: 1.20×0.80×1.90 m (length x width x height)
Pallet weight: 440 kg.

CERATINEX® ATTRACTANT 5 KG

Corrugated cardboard 20 kg box (4 x 5 kg)
Box size: 0.60×0.40×0.35 m (length x width x height)
Box weight: 22.7 kg.
No. of boxes per pallet: 20.
Pallet size: 1.20×0.80×1.90 m (length x width x height)
Pallet weight: 465 kg.

CERATINEX® ATTRACTANT 1 KG

Corrugated cardboard 16 kg box (16 x 1 kg)
Box size: 0.60×0.40×0.35 m (length x width x height)
Box weight: 19.2 kg.
No. of boxes per pallet: 20.
Pallet size: 1.20×0.80×1.90 m (length x width x height)
Pallet weight: 395 kg.

CERATINEX® ATTRACTANT 2 KG IN DOSAGES

Corrugated cardboard 8 kg box (4 x 2 kg)
Box size: 0.60×0.40×0.35 m (length x width x height)
Box weight: 10.1 kg.
No. of boxes per pallet: 20.
Pallet size: 1.20×0.80×1.90 m (length x width x height)
Pallet weight: 215 kg.

CERATINEX® ATTRACTANT KITCorrugated cardboard box of 35 units.
Box size: 0.60×0.40×0.27 m (length x width x height)
Box weight: 2.6 kg.
No. of boxes per pallet: 28.
Pallet size: 1.20×0.80×2.05 m (length x width x height)
Pallet weight: 85 kg.

Specific attractants for females and males of Ceratitis capitata.

The diffusers are in a blister pack and individually packed in an aluminium sachet with a label specifications. They last 120 days in field conditions. They are also sold in packs of 50 units.

Once removed from the packaging (of 1 to 50 units), the diffuser needs no activation or opening, just placed correctly in the trap.

ECONEX TRYPACK® COMPACT 120 DAYS 1 UNIT

Diffuser of 3 food attractants specifically for females and males of Ceratitis capitata. It lasts 120 days in field conditions.

2,58 € (excl. VAT)


ECONEX TRYPACK® COMPACT 120 DAYS 50 UNITS

Diffuser of 3 food attractants specifically for females and males of Ceratitis capitata. It lasts 120 days in field conditions. It is sold in packs of 50 units.

2,46 € (excl. VAT)


ECONEX TRYPACK® COMPACT SUPER 120 DAYS 1 UNIT

Diffuser of 3 food attractants and 1 parapheromone to attract females and males of Ceratitis capitata. It lasts 120 days in field conditions.

5,24 € (excl. VAT)


PERIOD OF USE

To obtain good control of the Mediterranean fruit fly it is advisable to combine two methods: detection and monitoring; and mass trapping.

In spring, 1 to 2 traps per hectare can be placed for the detection of the pest and observation of its population levels. Through tolerance thresholds established in each area, the moment to adopt control measures is later defined, in this case mass trapping.

The tolerance threshold for Ceratitis capitata is very low and varies according to the area and type of traps used. In general, the captures per trap and per day are between 0.5 and 3.

NECESSARY MATERIAL

An INVAGINATED EOSTRAP®or INVAGINATED EOSTRAP® ORANGE LID trap with an ECONEX TRYPACK® COMPACT attractants diffuser.

2,45 € (excl. VAT)

2,45 € (excl. VAT)


MASS TRAPPING

Ceratitis capitata females are captured and also some males of this species, in order to reduce mating, meaning that unfertilised females will lay unviable eggs. This greatly reduces the population of the pest.For this purpose, the amount of traps per surface area must be increased, according to the location and uniformity of the plots. 

A trap controls a surface area between 500 and 1.000 m2. This means a density of 10 to 20 traps per hectare, also placed on the south side of the trees and at a height of 1.5 to 2 metres.On the borders of the plots, it will be necessary to place a barrier of traps separated 10 to 15 metres apart from each other.


STORING THE DIFFUSERS

The diffusers must be stored in their original packaging and in the refrigerator at 4 oC; or in the freezer at -18 oC, in which case they will last for 2 and 4 years respectively.

Recommended information:

ECONEX WEB RESOURCES

Section of the ECONEX corporate website that allows you access to online information about ECONEX solutions for the biocontrol of other relevant agricultural and forest pests.

To access ECONEX WEB RESOURCES click on the image.